One of the other aspects of the project in Sumatra is to develop a rehabilitation and release program. Has pangolins are often so fragile when they are confiscated from the wildlife trade and so difficult to feed efficiently as part of the rehabilitation process, I am keen to tackle thee issues before we start dealing with animals.
The first part of this was beginning to investigate what they eat and see if there is a way to farm the ants at the rehabilitation centre to provide a natural diet for individuals before they are released.
While visiting the potential release site we asked an ex poacher to take us to areas where he had seen pangolin feeding so that we could take ant and termite samples and see what they pangolin may have been feeding on. There is no way to know if this is exactly what it was feeding on, but it is a starting point.
Once we have identified what anothe species are, we can look to see if there are ways to farm them to fed rehabilitating animals. Weaver ants have been successfully farmed using plastic bottles in Thailand, and there is potential to do something like this in Sumatra with both weaver ants and other species that we have identified from the forest.
This is something I hope to experiment with further when I am out in Sumatra in April 2017. In the meantime we are waiting to see if we are successful in securing further funding to build suitable rehabilitation enclosures and a quarantine block.
As the half term approached, it was time to start planning for a whirlwind trip to North Sumatra – an area where I was over the summer holidays. Thanks to Cleveland Metro Parks I secured some funding to develop a pangolin conservation program out here and felt that after the intial ground work it was important to head back and check in with people who I had previously met and see what the next small step could be.
The initial aim was to better understand the perceptions of local people and to find a location where we would be able to develop a release site for rehabilitated Sunda pangolin. We started this in the summer, with a trip to a local village called Kutamale. Thanks to a contact who lived there we knew that there were people who poached pangolin and we spoke to them the last time we visited. Over the past 7 weeks one of the poachers showed an interest in the work that we were doing, and after meeting him last time, and decided to stop poaching pangolin.
As he seemed interested in helping us, I decide to invest in a GPS from the budget. The plan was that he would take out the GPS when he went hunting for wild pig and if he saw a pangolin just mark the location where he saw it. A way of giving him a new skill and some responsibility but without preaching about not poaching pangolin and a way to see how he works. This is also incredibly useful survey information to see where and how often he encounters pangolin.
This week we went up there and showed him how to use the GPS. We also asked if he could help take us to areas where he had seen pangolin to collect some ants and termite samples. It seemed to be a very successful trip.
After we returned from the village we heard that a group of villagers had asked him if he would come out hunting with them and he had in fact said no. This was out of fear that if they saw a pangolin while out the others may take the animal, or may even go out later to collect it. He had made the decision independently that it would be better for him to go out by himself.
This is the sort of encouraging information we need and has not come from offering him a job, or giving him money to stop poaching pangolin but simply building up a relationship, paying him to take us in the forest, offering him new skills and developing a working relationship. We are definitely lucky to find someone like this and I am looking forward to seeing how this relationship develops in the future.
This weekend I am privileged to have been asked to present at a Wildlife Featival at The Rainforest Discovery Centre in Sandakan.
Full of music, art and fun the festival also invites conservationists to talk about their work and engage visitors about the issues in conservation. Naturally, I will be talking about pangolins!
I am hoping to share the issues faced in pangolin conservation and ask he audience to help come up with novel ideas to help. Prizes will be on offer for the best ideas.
Thanks to Future Alam Borneo for organising this excellent event!
My focus this summer has been in Sumatra as we set up some work, initially funded by Cleveland Meteroparks Conservation Fund.
One part of this is to enthuse locals about their wildlife. To start this off we conducted a small school event with some local children in Sibolangit District. They are given regular English lessons and we joined in with an environmentally themed topic, focusing on the Sunda pangolin.
Together we read a copy of ‘A Pangolin Tale: Adventures of an Armored Anteater‘. We then played some games relating to the animals in the book to help them learn the English names. For example, I would say ‘tiger’ and the children would roar like a tiger! It worked both ways, I then had to do the same to learn the names in Indonesian 🙂
Afterwards, we talked about how the scales of the pangolin were made from the same stuff as your fingernails and to remember this all the children created a pangolin picture with their finger prints.
Finally the became pangolin protectors and they all drew an image in the middle of a pangolin shield, which was the same shape as a pangolin scale. .
Although this was only a small event, it is hoped that it can be repeated many times it different places. It can also be developed more and we can teach the children more about the pangolin.
Before we undertake any outreach program it is important for us to understand the perceptions of the people we wish to work with and their attitude towards pangolins.
I often find that poachers are portrayed in a particular light matching either a poor villager who struggles to feed his family or an evil hunter who just wants more money. Maybe this is because it is easier for us to either find sympathy for them or despise them.
I find this stereotyping problematic as we are either just victimising or villainising poachers, it’s untrue and unhelpful. The value of pangolin is so well known that if people see one they will pick it up and sell it. There are actually very few people who go and look for pangolin specifically (because it is so hard to find).
The pangolin is not related to people’s life, they are not a pest on their farms, but they don’t believe that they really help the farms either. They do not want their children to work on the farms, so it is no real issue if they are not here for future generations. In fact, for many of them we had to show a picture of the animal, despite knowing the local name for them.
However, we found out some things that may help: They are afraid of the law. If there was to be some sort of government warning and enforcement people openly admit that they would think twice about selling it. We also employed one of the poachers to help us for the few days we were there. He took us into the forest and showed us where he had found them before and signs that he looked for that he thought were pangolin. He was incredibly useful and organized for us to meet other poachers in other villages. He seemed enthused to work with us.
This gave us some ideas of where we could head in the future.
An important aspect is that different points will have different levels of priority depending on where we are working. This is why investing so much time with interviews is important, we can also re do the interviews in a few years to see if any of the interventions have had an impact.
Over the past week I have been in the district of Tongka, an area in Central Kalimantan. This is an area where the locals are desperate to save their Ulin (ironwood) forest-to which they have strong ancestral connections.
Their income is generated from the forest, mainly the cutting and selling of rattan. They hunt in the forest for wild pig, deer and civet. Village law requires those who wish to hunt to ask permission from the village elder, and only then are they allowed to hunt once a month, taking only one species. Those within the village who violate this law are fined and those from other villages are fined and, if necessary, reported to the police. The theory is sound, although as with anything, there are those who rebel. Furthermore, they suffer encroachment from other trans-migration villages nearby and are fighting the threat of palm oil.
They do not view themselves as poor, however, food is not secure. Although in the recent fires they lost a relatively small 10% of their land, flooding from illegal logging by their neighbors and unsustainable farming practices put the future of the forest and their livelihoods at risk.
We visited with Jayadi, trained in the practice of permaculture, in an effort to try and build capacity for a more sustainable approach to producing food and generating income. I was there to provide two camera traps to place in the forest to try and record some of the species that the locals claim are there, include many non-Panthera cats, sunbears and pangolin.
So what about pangolins?
Within the village, over the past year, 8 pangolins have been poached, selling for what is the equivalent of one year’s salary (around 2.2 million IDR). If caught the village fine is 2.1 million IDR but the demand from the Chinese and price makes picking up a curled up pangolin, worth the risk – at the moment they never go hunting for it and they don’t eat it, the poaching is opportunistic.
From an outsiders’ point of view, we may be up in arms – we know this is a Critically Endangered species, the Sunda pangolin being at risk of global extinction. Now imagine you live an 8 hour drive away from the nearest town and have to hop on your motorbike to go and get phone signal; combine this with the insecure food and the fact that the forest that is the foundation of your community is under threat – is what is going on in other areas of the world really going to affect you? Would the loss of the pangolin matter?
To some in the community it does, it makes them sad that they might lose it. However, in their eyes, their hunting practices have not impacted on populations – due to the targeting of those fast breeding species, something the pangolin is not. You wonder though, because they talk openly about how the rhino was here and is now hunted to extinction.
The trip reinforced a couple of things:
- Alternative livelihood schemes are great, but they alone won’t save the pangolin. I believe they can be a way to build up a relationship with the village and with that trust the poaching may go down but, as I’ve said many time before, that’s about building up a relationship.
- Reducing demand is key. Once that stops, so will the poaching.
- While you should always stand by your beliefs, you need to listen and accept those of other people. Then you are in the position to work together and that is the most powerful tool in conservation.
- Patience is needed. It can be frustrating, but sometimes slowly, slowly is the only way; but slowly, slowly through many different avenues, can make a big change.
After months of hard work A Pangolin Tale: Adventure of the Armored Anteater is available on line from both the UK and US Amazon sites . We are currently working on getting it distributed world wide! 30% of the profits go to support pangolin conservation.
At the moment, the book has been put to great use. Locally a few teachers who I am friends with have been reading it to their classes and I am hopefully going to be working with a local Guide leader to do some events with some groups.
Internationally, a copy has been sent to Save Vietnam’s Wildlife, where I first started working with pangolins for The Carnivore and Pangolin Conservation Program. Here is a lovely photo of the book outside their new education centre.
A wonderful non-profit, One More Generation (OMG) also presented a copy to Sharon Guynup at the Environmental Change and Security Program.
I am also incredibly excited to be working with this group and their founders to launch a pangolin campaign towards the end of the year. These guys are working hard to empower the youth around the world and tackling pressing environmental issues. I am also thrilled to announce that I have accepted their invitation to become an Advisory Board Member 🙂 Stayed tuned to find out what we have planned…